E-Waste Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Implications for Early Child Care, Growth and Development in Nigeria

  • Umar Ibrahim Department of Early Childhood Care and Education, Federal College of Education, Zaria, Kaduna State
Keywords: E-waste generation and management, Environmental pollution, Health hazard, Early child care.


Nigeria is one of the dumping grounds for electrical and electronic waste materials and appliances that are outdated or close to end-of-life cycle (e-waste). E-waste contains potentially harmful substances. Inappropriate and unsafe management practices of these wastes can cause environmental pollution and health hazard and impact early child care, growth and development. The study examines the issues of disposal, recycling and proper management of e-waste materials in order to tackle the menace of health risk exposure to early life. Some recommendations were made as; All stakeholders (government, industry, environmental groups, and citizens) must work in cooperative collaboration with NESREA to effectively manage and mitigate the problems of e-waste in Nigeria. Nigeria should immediately ratify the Bamako Convention and entrench stringent enforcement regime of the National Environmental (Electrical/Electronic Sector) Regulations 2011 and the Nigerian Decree of 1988 prohibiting all imports of hazardous wastes.



ABC News, 2006. Is America exporting a huge environmental concern? ABC News January 6, 2006 issue. www.abcnews.go.com/2020/technology/story?id=1479506.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicoloigcal profile for chromium. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 2012.

Amachree, M., 2013. Update on e-waste management in Nigeria. National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), Nigeria presentation at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Global E-Waste Management Network (GEM3), San Francisco, USA, 15-19
July,2013. www.epa.gov/international/regions/asia/taiwan/iemn-pdfs/nigeria.pdf

Bagudo, A.B (2008). The Relevance of early Childhood Care Development and Education in Achievement of Vision 2020 Farfuru Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Studies, 3, 20-27.

Ban, B. Gang J., lim J., Wang S., An K. & kim D, (2005) “Studies on the reuse of Waste Printed Circuit Board as an Additive for cement Mortar”, Journal of Environmental Science and health. Tylor and Francis Vol 40 pp 645-656

BHUTTA, M.K., OMAR, A. and YANG, X. (2011). Electronic waste; a growing concern in today’s environment. Economic Research International, Volume 2011, Article ID 474230, 8 pages

Chen, A. Dietrich, K. N. Huo, X. & Ho S, (2011) “Developmental Neurotoxicants in E-Waste” An Emerging Health Concern. Environmental Health Perspectives”, vol 119, no 4, April, pp 431-438.

DENGA, W. G., COULED, P. K. K., LIUE, W. K., BID, X. H., FUD, J. M. and WONGA, M. H. (2006). Atmospheric levels and cytotoxicity of PAHs and heavy metals in TSP and PM2.5 at an electronic waste recycling site in southeast China, Atmospheric Environment, 40(36): 6945 – 6955.

Ejieh, M. U. C (2006). Pre-Primary Education in Nigeria: Policy Implementation and Problems Retrieved from http//:ikogretim-oinline.org.tr on the 11th February, 2011.

Eko Declaration, 2011. Communiqué of the 1st Eko E-Waste Summit on Regulation and Management of E-Waste in Nigeria held in Lagos, Nigeria, 24-25 February, 2011.

ENVIS, (2008) “Electronic Waste”, ENVIS Newsletter, Mumbai, India;.

ETC (2012). Promote good laws, State legislation. Electronic Takeback Coalition (ETC) http://www.electronicstakeback. com/promotegood-laws/state-legislation. Accessed July 10, 2014.

Federal Government of Nigeria (2004). The compulsory Free Universal Basic Education and other Related Mattes Act. Lagos: Government Printer.

Fu J, Zhou Q, Liu J, et al. High levels of heavy metals in rice (Oryza sativa L.) from a typical E-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential risk to human health. Chemosphere 2008; 71: 1269–75.

Greenpeace, 2009. Undercover operation exposes illegal dumping of e-waste in Nigeria. www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/features/e-waste-nigeria180209/.

Harder, B. 2005. Toxic “E-waste” gets cached in poor nations, Report says. National Geographic News. 8 November, 2005 edition.

MACAULEY, M., PALMER, K. and SHIN, J. S. (2003). Dealing with electronic waste modeling, the lost and environmental benefits of computer monitor disposals. Journal of Environmental M a n a g e m e n t , 68(1): 13 – 22.

Mahuta, M. G (2007). Introduction to Sociological Foundation of Education. Sokoto: But-Bass Educational Books.

MoEF, (2008) Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Management of E-waste, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Delhi, India; March 12, 84 pp.

Obidike, I.V (2012). Towards Effective Early Childhood Care and Education Programme in Nigeria. Journal of Teacher Perspective 6 (3) (507-513).

Ogungbuyi, O., Nnorom, I.C., Osibanjo, O. and Schluep, M., 2012. E-waste country assessment Nigeria. E-waste Africa Project of the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, 94 pp. Available at www.ewasteguide.info/files/ogungbuyi_2012_bccc_empa.pdf.

Osuagwu, O. E. & Ikerionwu C, ( 2010) “E-cycling E-waste The Way Forward for Nigeria IT and Electromechanical Industry” International Journal of Academic Research;

Pinto, V. N. & Patil D.Y, (2008) “E-waste Hazard: The Impending Challenge” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; vol 12 Issue 2.

Pronczuk de Garbino J. Children’s health and the environment: a global perspective. A resource manual for the health sector. In: Pronczuk de Garbino J, ed. New York: World Health Organization, 2004.

Puckett, J., Westervelt, S.Gutierrez, R. and Takamiya, Y., 2005. The digital dump: Exporting re-use and abuse to Africa. The Basel Action Network, Seattle, USA, 85 pp. www.ban.org/banreports/10-24-05/documents/thedigitaldump_print.pdf.

Robinson BH. E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Sci Total Environ 2009; 408: 183–91.

Schluep M, Hagelüken C, Meskers C, et al. Market potential of innovative e-waste recycling technologies in developing countries. R’09 World Congress; Davos, Switzerland; Sept 14–19, 2009. 1–8.

TERADA, C. (2012). Recycling electronic wastes in Nigeria: Putting environmental and human rights at risk. North-western University J o u r n al o f I n t e r national Human Rights, 10(3): 154-172.

Terada, C., 2012. Recycling electronic waste in Nigeria: Putting environmental and human rights at risk.NWJ.Int’lHumanRight10(3) 154.http://scolarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/njihr/vol10/issue3/2.

UNEP, (2007b) E-Waste: Volume II E-Waste Management Manual United Nations Environment Protection, 124 pp.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Basel convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous waste and their disposal. 1989. http://www.basel.int/Portals/4/Basel%20Convention/docs/text/BaselConventionText-e. pdf (accessed Oct 17, 2013).

Wong CS, Duzgoren-Aydin NS, Aydin A, Wong MH. Evidence of excessive releases of metals from primitive e-waste processing in Guiyu, China. Environ Pollut 2007; 148: 62–72.

Wong CS, Wu SC, Duzgoren-Aydin NS, Aydin A, Wong MH. Trace metal contamination of sediments in an e-waste processing village in China. Environ Pollut 2007; 145: 434–42.

WOODELL, D. (2008a). GeoPedia: National Geographic. http://ngm.nationalgeo grap hic.com/geopedia/E-waste. Accessed July 10, 2014.

WOODELL, D. (2008b). High tech trash. National Geographic Magazine, 2008: 72 – 73.

Yu XZ, Gao Y, Wu SC, Zhang HB, Cheung KC, Wong MH. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils at Guiyu area of China, aff ected by recycling of electronic waste using primitive technologies. Chemosphere 2006; 65: 1500–09.