Electronic waste pollution in Nigeria: impact on child health
The study explored the impact of e-waste pollution in Africa, especially on child health. Concepts of electrical and electronic waste, contamination by e-waste, e-waste and health risks, sources of child exposure at home and surroundings routes to e-wastes pollution, dangers attached to e-waste pollution and the challenges of tackling e-waste were discussed. The paper advocated the critical need for the intervention of government and non-governmental organizations. Keywords: E-waste management, Environmental pollution, Child health, Environmental health.
ADI (2010). African Development Indicators, Open Data by Country. Available at (31.01.2011): http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/africa-development-indicators
CIA (2005). Central Intelligence Agency, The World Fact book. Available at :(22.9.2010): https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gh.html Eugster M., R. Hischier, et al. (2007). Key environmental impacts of the Chinese EEE industry â€“ a life cycle assessment study. State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO). St.Gallen / Switzerland; Beijing / China, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (Empa); Tsinghua University China: 90. Furniture re-use network (2009). Set of average weights for furniture, appliances and other items. GHS (2005). Ghana Health Service: The Health Sector in Ghana, Facts and Figures 2005. Accra. GIS (2008). Ghana Immigration Service: Aikins, L.F.; Gyasi, A.A.; Hlorgbey, D.E.K.: Annual Report for 2008, Analysis of Immigration Data. Accra. GSS (1998). Ghana Statistical Service: Apphia, Rebecca; et al.: Ghana Living Standard Survey 4, Report of the fourth Round (GLSS 4). Accra. GSS (2008). Ghana Statistical Service: Apphia, Rebecca; et al.: Ghana Living Standard Survey, Report of the fifth Round (GLSS 5). Accra. GSS (2009). Ghana Statistical Service: Ghana in Figures 2008. Accra. HPMP (2010). United Nation Development Program: Hydrochlorofluorocarbon Management Plan (HPMP). Accra. Not published yet.
Huisman, J. Magalini, F. et al. (2008). 2008 Review of Directive 2002/96 on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Final Report. United Nations University. ITU (2008). Information Technology Union, World TelecommunicationIICT Indicators Database, Chronological Time Series 1960-2007, 12th Edition 2008, Geneva 2008. Parts also available at:http://www.itu.int/ Laffely, J. (2007). Assessing cost implications of applying best e-waste recovery practices in a manual disassembly material recovery facility in Cape Town, South Africa, using process-based cost modelling. Lausanne / St.Gallen, EPF Lausanne / Empa. Mereku, D.K. (2000). Demand and Supply of Basic School Teachers in Ghana. Winneba: National Teacher Education Forum. Mo C. (2003). Ministry of Communication: The Ghana ICT for Accelerated Development (ICT4AD) Policy. Accra. Mueller, E. and Widmer, R.(2009). Material flÃ¼sse der elektrischen und elektronischen GerÃ¤te in der Schweiz, BAFU, Bern.
NAB (2009). National Accreditation Board: Accredited Tertiary Institutions, as at December 2009.Accra,2009.Availableat(30.06.2010):http://nab.gov.gh/nabsite/downloads/2010%20PUBLICATION%20FINAL.pdf Prakash S., Manhart, A., Amoyaw-Osei, Y., Agyekum, O.( 2010). Socio-economic assessment and feasibility study on sustainable e-waste management in Ghana. Accra.
Schluep, M. Hagelueken, C. et al. (2009). Sustainable Innovation and Technology Transfer Industrial Sector Studies: Recycling â€“ From E-Waste to Resources. Nairobi. SÃ©pulveda, A., M. Schluep et al. (2010). A review of the environmental fate and effects of hazardous substances released from electrical and electronic equipments during recycling: Examples from China and India. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 30 (1): 28-41. SHEP (2010). Self-help Electrification Program: Presentation by Vanderpuye, Henry, Energy Consultant, Ministry of Energy, Ghana, to the Climate Parliment, March 2010. Available at(30.06.2010):http://www.climateparl.net/cpcontent/pdfs/SHEP%20%20Ghanaâ€™s%20Selfhelp%20Electrification%20Programme.pdf SWICO Recycling Guarantee (2006). Activity Report 2005. Zurich: Switzerland, Swiss Association for Information, Communications and Organization Technology (SWICO). Thompson, N. M. and Casely-Hayford, L. (2008). Associates for Change: RECOUP Working Paper 16, The Financing and Outcome of Education in Ghana. Cambridge.
UN Comtrade (2010). United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database, Country List, International Trade Center (ITC) Country Profile, Trade in goods statistics. Available at (22.09.2010): http://www.intracen.org/dbms/country/CA_CtryIndex.Asp?CT=288
WDI (2008). The World Bank, Development Indicators, Open Data by Country. Available at (22.09.2010): http://data.worldbank.org/country/ghana
Zumbuehl, D. (2006). Mass flow assessment (MFA) and assessment of recycling strategies for cathode ray tubes (CRTs) for the Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA), South Africa. Zurich: St.Gallen, ETH Zurich / Empa.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher.